Rolling stock are complex integrated systems within the railway system. When they require enhancement, other than maintenance and painting, this can result in complex programmes of work. As well as the on-board systems including doors, traction/braking, on-board communications systems, toilets and air-conditioning, rolling stock requires interoperation with infrastructure systems such as signalling, platform systems and network communications systems. All these systems have a level of safety integrity that should be considered, designed for and tested accordingly. This level of complexity requires effective programme management to ensure the expected benefits are realised, safety is maintained and interoperability with the whole railway system is retained.
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