North runway and North West concourse
Following substantial completion of design services for the first runway, aprons and pavements, our design team was further appointed for design of the second (North) runway and taxiway, and the aprons for the concourse area to the terminal expansion. Design services included a re-assessment of settlement of the island platform.
The 3,800 m North runway is parallel to but offset from the South runway and provides full ICAO standard operations for the new international airport. The concourse extension provides an additional 11 gates and 10,000 sq.m. paved area.
Pavement construction used Marshall Asphalt for the runway and taxiways to accommodate predicted settlements and both block paving and concrete paving for the apron areas. The construction contract valued at approximately HK$1,000 million was awarded in mid 1997 and works were substantially completed in late 1998, although for operational reasons the runway only came into use in May 1999.
Aviation fuel receipt facility
As part of Hong Kong’s ambitious airport core projects programme, we were appointed by the Airport Authority in 1994 to undertake the design of the offshore Airport Fuel Receipt Facility. This facility is located at Sha Chau Kok, a small island several kilometres from the airport platform. Two main berths for bulk tankers of up to 10,000 dwt., were provided, together with high-speed fuel transfer equipment, two kilometres long subsea pipelines to the airport platform, and all associated maintenance, fire fighting and rescue provisions.
Included in the services were geophysical surveys of the seabed for dredging to accommodate large tankers, marine traffic assessments, and a challenging environmental impact assessment to determine the potential for disturbance of the native Chinese White Dolphin population, and to develop environmental mitigation measures.
The jetty and berthing structures comprise tubular steel piles with pre-cast concrete caps and insitu concrete infills. The subsea pipeline is of twin 550 mm diameter welded steel construction lowered into a dredged channel and then provided with a capping to protect against damage from 10 tonne anchors. The accommodation and maintenance units were all designed as modular pre-assembled units to be completed off site and delivered by barge.
Full engineering services were provided including geotechnical, structural, marine, building services and environmental engineering as well as estimating and value engineering.
We were responsible for all building services, utilities and specialist engineering systems for the airside Ancillary Buildings at the New Hong Kong Airport, Chek Lap Kok. The buildings number 18 in total and range from specialist communication equipment rooms to major maintenance facilities. Many buildings, and the specialist equipment contained therein, are critical to the operation of the airport. These include fire stations, sea rescue stations and fire training facilities with full aircraft fire simulation. Other support facilities include vehicle battery charging and aircraft waste disposal centres.
Total construction cost was approximately HK$800 million and the facilities were completed in April 1998.
In addition to the provision of design services for the Airport Runways, Taxiways, Aprons and Pavements, we received a separate commission in 1994 from the Airport Authority of Hong Kong for design services in relation to the Airfield Lighting (Contract 153). Scope of works included 45m high mast lighting to the terminal aprons, mast lighting to the maintenance and cargo aprons, ground and directional lighting, airfield roads and perimeter lighting.
Works were completed for the airport opening in 1998.
Navigation and security buildings
In 1993 and in a joint venture with WS Atkins Ltd., we were awarded the design contract for the airport runways, taxiways and pavements. This contract included the design of 12 small buildings and structures to house the various meteorological and navigation aids essential to the operation of the airport. The same joint venture was subsequently awarded a second contract for design of the Northern Runway and associated works, which included a further 10 similar structures.
All of the structures are in close proximity to the runways and require to exhibit minimal radar images and as a consequence many are buried.
Building Services requirements were fully redundant with self contained standby power at as any of the facilities. Other requirements were for specialist earthing, electrical isolation, fire protection and security systems.
Southern Runway (phase 1) was completed in 1998 and the Northern Runway (phase 2) in 2000.
Construction support facilities
Hong Kong’s new airport at Chek Lap Kok is constructed on a platform reclaimed from the sea to the North of Lantau Island. The remote location with initial access by boat only, and the very fast construction programme required the adoption of exceptional measures to ensure that the construction workforce estimated to peak at 25,000 had sufficient support facilities. The Airport Authority commissioned the building of several temporary residential villages, which were self-contained with all associated canteens, laundries, rest rooms, recreation provisions, and more.
The facilities were sourced on a Design & Build basis and the successful tender used a pre-fabricated modular building system of up to six storeys with precast concrete floors and external cladding/partition panels. In addition to the residential buildings the contract included warehouses, workshops and administration buildings to provide for the numerous contractor organisations and supervisory staff.
Full engineering services were provided for structural, geotechnical building services and site utilities, and the project was completed in 1997.