History of awareness of NZ waste legislation. 1973 - First solid waste disposal manual. 1980s- Start of more active landfill engineering such as landfill lining. 1991 - Resource Management Act. 1992 - First landfill engineering guidelines are published and Government national policy developed (1992). First landfill consents issued mid 1990s. Cost of controls to manage landfills increases due to increased regulations resulting in the closure of many small sites. 1998-1999 National Landfill Census. 2003 & 2010 First NZ waste strategy goals. MfE (2001) and WasteMINZ (2018) issue guidance on landfill management.
While clearly beneficial, it does not provide a strategy of cost recovery for legacy landfill sites. There are few examples of provisions geared towards climate-related damage likely due to budget constraints as additional funding for this purpose is not available to local councils.
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Pohe Island – Destination Playground, Whangarei District Council
It is worth considering how closed landfills could contribute to the emissions reduction strategy, providing land area for sequestration sinks and the dual benefit of potentially thriving areas of biodiversity.

Carole Smith
Technical Director - Environment
New Zealand
Simone Glassom
Environmental Scientist
New Zealand