BOLT - Battery Optimization Lifecycle Tool

A proprietary tool developed by WSP for the analysis of heavy-duty fleet electrification and optimization. Get in touch to learn more.

BOLT helps public and private transit heavy-duty fleet operators explore range anxiety across multiple operating conditions and variables.

BOLT determines vehicle energy usage on a per kilometer (km) basis and tracks battery state of charge as a function of vehicle characteristics (vehicle weight and passenger load), accounting for parasitic loads, HVAC and external conditions, including route topography and seasonal weather conditions. See figure below, Factors That Determine Energy Use


grf-factors-that-determine-energy-use (1)


BOLT’s database includes bus manufacturer vehicle specifications, and data on particular electric drivetrain and HVAC system battery consumption. Moreover, operating conditions such as external temperature, weather, passenger load, time period and geographic typography (elevation) are mapped into the BOLT algorithm to assess the impact on Kw/h per kilometer.

BOLT can be used to determine if an electric vehicle will be able to successfully complete a defined route or block (daily group of routes/bus trips assigned to a vehicle), or if on-route charging is required.

BOLT can introduce on-route charging locations into the simulation to gauge improvement on the system network EI, the percentage of transit routes analyzed that can be successfully completed with the electric vehicle.

The Pattern Analysis Report simulates electric bus usage for specific pattern, bus, battery and other parameters as report in EU units/US units.

BOLT presents battery state of charge for each individual route pattern, depending on season, time period and ridership characteristics—per stop and per total route:

The Block Analysis Report simulates electric bus usage for specific block, bus, battery and other parameters in EU units/US units. Chargers are used to calculate energy balance for the specific bus block. The report contains the table and battery usage diagram.

BOLT calculates the battery state of charge for each individual bus block (daily bus trips) per bus trip and total block, according to season, time period and ridership characteristics:


Multiple blocks can be selected to produce a Block-Group Report.

BOLT also provides the EI output for percent of blocks or daily operation that can be electrified using a select group of vehicles and battery sizes. Using BOLT, fleet operators can explore battery sizes, charger types and charging policies to improve the electrification of their operations.

Additionally, BOLT shows the status of passenger load factors for each bus type, restricting usage of small-capacity buses for certain routes based on ridership characteristics.

BOLT’s database includes multiple charger specifications and power transfer speed parameters, which can monitor progress along routes, depots (bus garage) or major terminals via wireless network to ensure power is transferred into the vehicle during layover or end-of-day charging.

bolt 4 graphs

BOLT currently captures data from 25 e-bus manufacturers in Europe, North America, Asia and South America.

Continual updates ensure the timely addition of all market entries and new technologies introduced by these manufacturers.

WSP is now working on how to optimize e-bus block cutting and charger locations to minimize energy consumption while respecting infrastructure and scheduling regulations. Cost of energy by day types and time periods are among the considerations.